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Posts Tagged ‘old hickory’

One Word for Sandston: Oopsie

June 9th, 2014 Sears Homes 3 comments

When you drive into Sandston (Virginia), you might see this historic marker (shown below) which states that Sandston (a WW1-era DuPont munitions site) had “230 Aladdin houses, that were erected for plant workers.”

That’s the “oopsie.”

Yes, they were built for plant workers, and yes, they are houses, but they’re not Aladdin houses.

For some time now, I’ve been researching Penniman, Virginia (another WW1 DuPont munitions plant) and that’s how I came to learn about Sandston. (Sandston was renamed in 1921. Prior to that, it was known as “Seven Pines.”)

In June 1918, DuPont signed a contract with the US Government to supply smokeless powder for the guns of The Great War. By later Summer 1918, thousands of women were employed at The Seven Pines Bag-Loading Plant. The women, all members of Virginia’s Women’s Munition Reserve, were charged with sewing silk bags and filling them with smokeless powder. The silk bags of propellant were for use in large caliber guns on ships and on the battlefield.

Seven Pines is located about seven miles from Richmond. The location was not considered ideal because the cigarette factories in Richmond provided stiff competition for attracting quality workers (which would be predominantly women). As an enticement, DuPont decided to build a village with 230 modest bungalows, some shops, churches, and more. The little houses would be rented out to the employees.

DuPont turned to a Grand Rapids contractor to build 230 darling bungalows in one big hurry. The contractor “Owen-Ames-Kimball” turned to North American Construction Company to supply the lumber for the houses. In 1918, North American Construction Company (based in Bay City) was also known by another name: Aladdin Homes.

According to my dear friend and architectural historian Dale Wolicki, it’s most likely that Aladdin provided the building materials in pre-cut lengths. Dale surmises this is most likely because, during WW1, boxcars were in short supply. And the US Government had done a full-court press to get the Seven Pines plant up and operational immediately. Pre-cut lumber would expedite the construction process. And we know that DuPont and Aladdin had a corporate relationship.

But the houses in Sandston were built based on DuPont designs. These same designs were built at other DuPont plants, such as Carney’s Point, New Jersey, Hopewell, Virginia, Penniman, Virginia, Old Hickory, Tennessee, and more.

It’s my opinion that, for a house to be a true “kit house,” both building materials and the architectural design must come from the kit home company; in this case, that’d be Aladdin.

As you scroll through the photos below, you’ll see that the houses in Sandston are unquestionably DuPont designs.

In short, the houses in Sandston are not Aladdin kit homes.

Sorry about that, Sandston.

Perhaps you can get that sign fixed now!

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Oopsie

Perhaps they could put a piece of black electrical tape over the part where it says, "Aladdin" and save the expense of redoing the entire sign. Photo is copyright 2010, Leon Reed.

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Drove through and found many DuPont Houses, but only two Aladdins - and they were iffy!

In November 2013, my buddy Milton and I went all through Sandston and I found only two Aladdin kit homes! However, I did find a surfeit of DuPont designs, such as this "Denver."

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You may notice the pretty blue house shown above looks just like the DuPont Denver model.

You may notice the pretty blue house shown above looks just like the "DuPont Denver" model. (House above is a mirror image of the model shown in the vintage catalog.)

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Another example the Arlington

Another example of a "DuPont Model" is the Arlington (shown above).

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Arlington Dupont

This is one of several fine-looking Arlingtons in Sandston.

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The Ketcham

The Ketchum was a fine spacious house, but it did not have plastered walls; rather, it had an "interior finished with beaverboard" (an early 20th Century compressed wood-pulp product).

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Ketcham

There are several Ketchums in Sandston.

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Aladdin Contract 2b

And here's where it gets really interesting. This paperwork (supplied by Clarke Historical Library at Central Michigan University) shows that Owen-Ames-Kimball Company turned to Aladdin to supply them with building materials for "75 DuPont Houses" and "51 Painter Houses." Oops (again). Is it possible that the 230 number is also wrong? Hmmm... (Image is courtesy Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University).

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Contract 2aaaa

Seven Pines was still gearing up when Armistice ended the war. It's likely that the contract for these houses was canceled, which is why many of the "painter houses" were never completed. BTW, what is a "painter house"? That question plagued me for some time. (Image is courtesy Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University).

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Contract 3a

Page 2 of this agreement shows that 149 of those painter houses were not built. (Image is courtesy Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University).

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Hagley

So what is a "painter house"? This map helped me figure that out. In 1918, the government asked DuPont to provide a detailed map of Penniman. This map shows the layout of the village and the plant. In the image above, you'll see that there's a section of houses in the village that's labeled "plastered houses." If you look at the description of the modest homes offered by DuPont for their workers, you'll see it states that many of the models had interior walls finished with "beaverboard." This was, in short, a cheap wall covering made of compressed wood pulp. Its best feature was that it was very "economical." The better-class homes (probably for supervisors) had plastered walls. Photo is courtesy Hagley Museum and Library.

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Hagley two

Close-up of the 1918 map of Penniman shows that this section in the village features "plastered houses." So there were "plastered houses" and "beaverboard houses." Photo is courtesy Hagley Museum and Library.

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Ruberoid

This inventory of Penniman houses, done by the US Army after the war had ended (1919), provided another clue to "painter houses." The houses are broken down into two groups: Ruberoid houses (tar-paper siding) and painted houses (with wooden siding). If you're not a big architecture buff, and you're assigned with the task of inventorying houses, the houses in these DuPont villages had two categorizations: Ruberoid Houses and Painted Houses. Made it simple and sweet.

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Contract 2aaaa

The DuPont Houses were - probably - the Ruberoid Houses with tar-paper siding. The "Painter Houses" were the houses "of a more permanent nature" with wooden siding. (Image is courtesy Clarke Historical Library, Central Michigan University).

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The DuPont Houses and Painter Houses erected at Seven Pines were built with lumber supplied by Aladdin, but in that these were DuPont designs, they can not accurately be described as Aladdin Homes.

So, who has some black electrical tape for that sign?

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To read more about what got me started on DuPont’s villages, click here.

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You can read an earlier blog about Sandston (with many more photos) here.

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The Home of C. F. Sauer, in Richmond

February 28th, 2014 Sears Homes 4 comments

UPDATED!  See new photos below!!

Today, I was at the Norfolk Public Library reading an old Richmond Times Dispatch from October 23, 1921 when I stumbled across this “pictorial record” of a fine old house in Richmond.

It caught my eye for several reasons:

1)  In the 1921 article, it was claimed that this was one of the oldest houses in its neighborhood (”The Lee District”).

2)  It had been moved from another location (from Broad Street to Grace Street).

3)  It’s massive and grand, and has a brass fireplace mantel (yes, brass).

4)  It was occupied by General Robert E. Lee during the Civil War (”Battery #10″).

And it’d be interesting to know if the owners are aware that these interior photos were featured in a 93-year-old Richmond newspaper.

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House

"Talavera is probably the oldest house in Lee District, being built 90 years ago when this part of Richmond was all woods" (Richmond Times Dispatch, October 23, 1921)

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Heres my favorite part

And was moved from Broad Street (I wonder where!), and was moved to Grace Street.

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Mr. C. F. Sauers home had a brass fireplace mantel.

Mr. C. F. Sauer's home had a brass fireplace mantel.

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Sitting room

Wonder who the fellow in the picture is?

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According to the caption,

According to the caption, the sideboard (barely visible in this image) is more than 100 years old (in 1921) and is made from solid oak. Despite repeated efforts, this was the best photo I could get from the old newspaper pages.

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Is the old C. F. Sauer house still alive and well?

Is the old C. F. Sauer house still alive and well?

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Ooh, a nice update! The house is alive and well! Heres a picture of it, as seen on February 28, 2014. Thanks to Brice Anderson for snapping a picture for me!  (Picture is copyright 2014 Brice Anderson and may not be used or reproduced without written permission.)

Ooh, a nice update! The house is alive and well! Here's a picture of it, as seen on February 28, 2014. Thanks to Brice Anderson for snapping a picture for me! (Picture is copyright 2014 Brice Anderson and may not be used or reproduced without written permission.)

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House

What a pleasure to see that this old house still looks much like it did when photographed for the Richmond Times Dispatch in 1921. What a pure joy!

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And this is the same C. F. Sauer that, at the tender age of 21, founded his own spice and seasonings company.

And this is the same C. F. Sauer that, at the tender age of 21, founded his own spice and seasonings company, which is still in business today. (Picture is copyright 2014 Brice Anderson and may not be used or reproduced without written permission.)

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To read about the Sears Homes I found in Richmond, click here.

And to see what I found in Sandston, click here!

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Those Riverview Bungalows and a Virginia Ghost Town

February 7th, 2014 Sears Homes No comments

If you love history or if you just like looking at pictures of old houses, you won’t want to miss our talk at the next CPRV Civic League Meeting.

David Spriggs and I will give a talk Monday night, featuring more than 100 vintage photos (many of which were recently discovered) showcasing a chapter of Riverview’s history that has been all but forgotten.

The talk is at 7:00 pm at the Eggleston Garden Center at 110 Lavalette Avenue in Norfolk (February 10th, Monday).

Scroll on down for a quick preview of some of the images we’ll be featuring Monday night.

Enjoy the photos below - and hope to see you Monday night!

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The image on the left

The house on the left is on Ethel Avenue in Riverview (circa 1948). The house on the right shows the same bungalow in Penniman, Virginia (Spring 1918). The photograph on the right was taken shortly after the house was built. Penniman was located six miles east of Williamsburg, and it was a town "built by DuPont." After World War I, the houses in Penniman were placed on barges and moved to several cities, including Norfolk! Cheatham Annex is now located where Penniman once stood. Photo on right is courtesy Hagley Museum and Library.

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Penniman was located on the York River and covered more than 6,000 acres.

Penniman was located on the York River and covered more than 6,000 acres. At its peak, Penniman had about 15,000 residents, and had its own hospital, hotel, movie theater, bank and post office. (Photo is courtesy Hagley Museum and Library.)

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If

If you look closely at the screened-in front porch of this Riverview house, you'll notice the original railings in place from its former life on the York River. This house is also on Ethel Avenue (1948).

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Penniman was

The houses that now sit on Ethel and Lavalette were the "permanent houses" built at Penniman, and they can be seen in the background (near the water's edge). Most of the houses seen in this photo were temporary structures with tarpaper siding and roofing. Pretty primitive. (Photo is courtesy Hagley Museum and Library.)

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If you look

If you look closely at these 1948 photos, you'll see extra skirting around the bottom of the houses. This is probably from "the big move" and was an effort to cover up the new foundations built for the incoming houses.

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The houses were shipped from Penniman by barge.

The houses were shipped from Penniman by barge. The houses shown here ended up in the Riverfront neighborhood (Major and Glenroie Avenue). The photo is from the December 1921 Virginia Pilot. Many thanks to Robert Hitchings for finding this newspaper article!

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One of our big breaks came when fellow researcher Mark Hardin discovered that our Ethels had been built at Dupont, Washington (another DuPont plant) and Ramsay, Montana.

One of our big breaks came when fellow researcher Mark Hardin discovered that our "Ethels" had been built at Dupont, Washington (site of another DuPont plant) and Ramsay, Montana. (This photo is courtesy of Mark Mckillop and may not be reproduced without written permission.)

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This

This photo shows the original placement of the Ethel Bungalows at Penniman. (Photo is courtesy Hagley Museum and Library.)

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And we discovered that this house (and a second one on Beach Street) also came from Penniman.

We discovered that this house on Ethel (and another one on Beach Street) came from Penniman.

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Hope you can join us Monday night, at 7:00 pm at the Eggleston Garden Center at 110 Lavalette Avenue in Norfolk.

To see images of several “Ethel Bungalows” from 1948, click here.

To read more about Penniman, click here.

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William & Mary and Penniman, Virginia

November 16th, 2013 Sears Homes 4 comments

After the War to End All Wars ended (November 1918), the whole world changed.

The bloom of Virginia’s youth had gone to Europe to fight in The Great War. Between mustard gas and powerful munitions, many suffered crippling injuries and many never made it back home at all. Most of the young men who saw battle were never the same again.

Returning vets got hit with two obstacles to home ownership: During the war, resources had been diverted to the front, and housing analysts estimated that 1-2 million housing units were needed immediately for the returning soldiers. Secondly, after the war, the cost of building materials soared, with prices doubling and tripling in the months following.

These were challenging times for many colleges, and William and Mary was no exception.

Due to a growing enrollment, the college needed more space for dorms, classrooms and dining areas. Perhaps someone at the college pointed out that with the closing of Penniman, there would be many buildings available for sale - cheap.

According to the Board of Visitors’ minutes from June 8, 1920, William and Mary’s Committee on Student Accommodations paid $985 for their first two “temporary” Penniman buildings, with $3,000 set aside for their re-building.

In reading the minutes I was interested to learn that the college did not merely “move” these structures. They disassembled them, and then hauled the building materials to the campus and re-assembled them, board by board. Kind of like building a pre-cut Sears kit home, but without a 75-page instruction book or numbered lumber.

On October 4, 1920, the BOV minutes stated that the, “President of the College was authorized to dismantle and bring the buildings recently purchased from the government at Penniman to the College and rebuild them here at an approximate cost of $5,000.”

I hope President Chandler was handy with his hands.

On January 8, 1921, The Flat Hat (student newspaper) reported that the “Hotel at Penniman has been bought and will be moved on the campus in the near future,” with construction beginning in mid-January.

Judging by the description, this was a large building.

One “wing” of the new building was for the Biology Department (five large laboratories and a lecture room). Another wing would be used as a dining hall (with seating capacity of 150 students) and another wing would serve as a dorm, with space for 50 students.

In June 1923, the BOV minutes reported that there was a great need for additional class room space. Mr. Bridges and Colonel Lane were instructed to run out to Penniman and “make some purchases at Penniman on the 13th of June, so that the temporary buildings may be constructed cheaply.”

Reading these minutes, you get the impression that they were running out to Penniman like we run up to the Home Depot.

It was recommended that the new building be placed behind the existing Citizenship Building “even though it may look bad to connect cheaply with the steam pipes” (that’s my favorite part).

William and Mary thought much more highly of these “temporary buildings” after they were erected on the hallowed grounds of the campus. In a document titled, “Valuation of College Land and Building,” they estimated that the value of two of their Penniman buildings (presumably the two with an estimated $5,000 outlay), to be $45,000 (June 1923).

Wow! At that kind of appreciation, they should have bought everything Penniman had to offer!

In June 1925, a fire destroyed the “Penniman Building”  (the one used as a dining hall/biology building). In 1926, the college was given a $60,000 grant (by the Virginia General Assembly) to put up some prettier buildings that did not look bad or connect cheaply with the steam pipes.

To learn more about Penniman, click  here.

To read about another interesting facet of Penniman’s history, click here.

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house with iron

According to the caption that appeared with this photo in "The Romance and Renaissance of the College of William and Mary in Virginia" (1924), the original tar-paper siding on this lovely building was replaced with "galvanized iron." Frankly, I think that's got to be a misstatement. Perhaps they intended to say galvanized metal. You have to wonder if the W&M folks went to Penniman and said, "Could you please sell us the ugliest structure you have on this 6,000 acre site?" Now *that* would be a believable story. And who decided to ramp up The Ugly by covering this building with metal? Did W&M have an abundance of students that liked to practice archery with flaming arrows? (Photo is from "The Romance and Renaissance of the College of William and Mary in Virginia," William & Mary Endowment Association, 1924, with special thanks to Terry Meyers and Kris Preacher for providing a digital version of this wonderful old photo.)

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house longer

Here are the Twin Uglies in their native habitat at Penniman, Virginia (1918). The vertical line is from the stitching of the two photographic images into one glorious whole. (Photo is courtesy Hagley Museum and Library.)

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Longer view

Longer view showing The Twin Uglies at Penniman, with the York River in the background. (Photo is courtesy Hagley Museum and Library.)

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house

Also shown in "The Romance and Renaissance of the College of William and Mary in Virginia," is this building. The book states that it was moved to the college campus about 1924, which isn't right, unless you put a lot of weight on that word "about." "The College of William and Mary, A History, Volume II" states that these buildings were built at Penniman in 1914. That's also a little boo boo. (Photo is from "The Romance and Renaissance of the College of William and Mary in Virginia," William & Mary Endowment Association, 1924, with special thanks to Terry Meyers and Kris Preacher for providing a digital version of this wonderful old photo.)

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house house house

Construction on Penniman began in April 1916. Within Penniman, this was known as a "boarding house," (admittedly, a much gentler term than "barracks," the word that was used to describe these buildings in W&M literature). As built, the structure might have had as many bedrooms as there are windows (40+), with 4-8 bathrooms and a long central hallway. No need for a kitchen because there was a mess hall in another part of the village. (Photo is courtesy Hagley Museum and Library.)

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house house house

As you can see from this 1918 photo, W&M had many buildings from which to choose. At its peak, Penniman had 15,000 people within its borders. (Photo is courtesy Hagley Museum and Library.)

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Penniman Hotel

As to the 1921 acquisition, there's only one building at Penniman that resembles a hotel, and that's this long structure shown above. When "The Flat Hat" stated that W&M had purchased the "hotel at Penniman," surely they didn't mean those crummy boarding houses or one of the Twin Uglies. If so, I hope that the student that wrote that piece had a chance to travel around a bit after he graduated. (Photo is courtesy Hagley Museum and Library.)

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hotel hotel hotel

A more expansive view of The Penniman Hotel. (Photo is courtesy Hagley Museum and Library.)

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barge Dec 1921

Here in Norfolk, our 50+ Penniman houses arrived whole and intact (and by barge!). Thanks to Robert Hitchings for finding this wonderful photo in the December 1921 Virginia Pilot.

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house house

By May of 1921, The Garden City Wrecking Company (a 1920s term for architectural salvage) was inviting the general public to come pick at the bones of Penniman. Pretty depressing, really, and yet also shows how prior generations took recycling very seriously. The same colleges that rant and rave about saving every scrap of paper don't hesitate to tear down old houses, thus sending 300,000 pounds of irreplaceable building materials to the landfill. I now have first-hand evidence of three colleges tearing down three rare kit homes in the last 10 years. This advertisement appeared in the May 1921 Virginia Gazette.

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After the war, building material costs soared.

After the war, returning vets wanted homes of their own, but the cost of building materials had soared. Plus, housing analysts estimated that 1-2 million housing units were needed immediately. It was the high cost of lumber that probably inspired W&M to turn to Penniman for their building needs. (This photo came from Stereoscope cards that I found at a friend's house. The images are quite clear, given their age and original purpose.)

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To read more about Penniman, click here.

To read about Penniman’s forgotten flu victims, click here.

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Sandston, Virginia: Another DuPont Town

November 10th, 2013 Sears Homes 13 comments

Figuring  out how many of the old Penniman houses were shipped to Norfolk has been a challenge. In addition to the many “DuPont Designs” found at Old Hickory (Tennessee), we’ve been finding additional designs at other DuPont plants around the country.

And last month, I purchased “DuPont: One Hundred and Forty Years” (Dutton, William S., Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1951), and found this:

DuPont Engineering Company was operating a shell-loading plant at Penniman, Virginia…and it was operating plants for the bag-loading of cannon powder at Tullytown, Pennsylvania and at Seven Pines, Virginia, all vitally important projects” (p. 247).

Took me and the hubby a few minutes to figure out that Seven Pines, Virginia was now Sandston. And my heart sank a little when I learned that Sandston is also the site of the current Richmond Airport.

Colleges and hospitals are notorious bungalow eaters. Only one corporate entity is worse: Airports.

On Saturday, as Milton and I were returning from the Virginia Historical Society (in Richmond) we saw the Sandston exit off I-64. I couldn’t help but take the exit into the small town of 7,500 people (2010 Census). And there in Sandston we found many examples of our DuPont houses.

However, I suspect that dozens (or more) were torn down when the airport was built. In fact, uncharacteristically, they apparently tore down the big fancy DuPont models and left an abundance of the modest “Six-Room Bungalows” (and yes, that was their official name).

Surely there are some vintage photos of Sandston (pre-airport) somewhere in the world. If so, I’d love to find them. Because based on our 30-minute visit to this town, there is at least one never-before-seen DuPont model present in Sandston that we’ve not seen in any other DuPont towns.

And I’m also wondering if the residents of Sandston know much about the history of their many pre-WW1 bungalows.

Lastly, it’s a puzzle as to why DuPont had so many munitions plants in such a small area of Virginia. There were munitions plants at Penniman, Hopewell and Sandston (then Seven Pines). At least Hopewell and Sandston got to keep a few of their old DuPont houses.

To  learn more about Penniman, click here.

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One of finer homes in the DuPont line was the Arlington.

One of "finer" homes in the DuPont line was the Arlington. This house was built at Carney's Point, NJ, Old Hickory, TN and probably at Penniman as well.

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To the typical McMansion buyer, this may look like small potatoes, but for industrial housing, this was high living.

To the typical McMansion buyer, this may look like small potatoes, but for "industrial housing," this was high living. Typically, these homes were for the supervisors of the plant.

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Arlington

This Arlington looks darn good considering that it was built as industrial housing in 1916.

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Another Arlington in Sandston.

Another Arlington in Sandston. This one is in beautifully original condition.

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The Haskell was also present at

The Haskell was also present at Carney's Point, NJ, Hopewell, Penniman and Sandston.

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This was not a very wide house.

This was not a very wide house. In fact, it appears to have been about 20' wide.

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This is a sideways Haskell in Willoughby Spit (Norfolk). It was moved here in the early 1920s - from Penniman.

This is a "sideways" Haskell in Willoughby Spit (Norfolk). It was moved here in the early 1920s - from Penniman. It's not a very big house.

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There are several of these houses in Sandston. Too wide to be a Haskell and too narrow for the Arlington. Ive dubbed it a Baby Arlington.

There are several of these houses in Sandston. Too wide to be a Haskell and too narrow for the Arlington. I've dubbed it a "Baby Arlington."

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Another Baby Arlington

Another "Baby Arlington"

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And yet another.

And yet another.

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Another DuPont model at Sandston is The Ketcham.

Another DuPont model at Sandston is The Ketcham.

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Dupon

The windows have been replaced in this old DuPont house, but it's still readily identifiable as a "Ketcham."

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Dupont kit

I'd just love to know if the homeowners know about the unique history of their old house.

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And

Ketcham Number Three, in Sandston, Virginia.

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But hands down, the #1  most prevalent house found in Sandston is the

But hands down, the #1 most prevalent house found in Sandston is the"Six Room Bungalow."

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And

And they are everywhere in Sandston. In the last 97 years, they've undergone all manner of renovation.

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Some

Some are mostly original.

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Some

Some have had been thoughtfully added on to.

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Some

Some look like quite modern and tidy.

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Some

Some are barely recognizable as one of DuPont's "Six Room Bungalows."

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Some

Some have had a rough time of it.

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What happened to the big fancy modes there in Sandston?

What happened to the big fancy DuPont models that were almost surely there in Sandston?

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house

Were they reduced to rubble when the airport was built?

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Mark Hardin found this in Sandston. Very interesting marker, but is it right? The 230 houses

Mark Hardin discovered this plaque for Sandston, Virginia. Very interesting marker, but is it right? The "230 Aladdin Houses" are (apparently) the DuPont houses. In Penniman, Virginia and DuPont, Washington, E. I. DuPont Nemours contracted with local business to build these company houses. Did they use a different approach in Sandston? Photo is copyright Leon Reed, 2010.

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To contact Rose, please leave a comment below!

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The Mystery of Our “Ethels” in Riverview is SOLVED!!

November 4th, 2013 Sears Homes 6 comments

Soon after I moved to Colonial Place/Riverview (Norfolk) in March 2007, I heard the story about the little bungalows in Riverview that (allegedly) had been moved there from The Jamestown Exposition (1907). According to the local legend, the houses had been built for the Exposition (at Sewell’s Point in Norfolk), and later moved to Riverview.

After looking at the bungalows on Ethel Avenue, I seriously doubted the veracity of the Exposition story. The build-date for the “Ethels” (our pet name for the bungalows) felt wrong. The houses looked like they’d been built after 1910.

And that’s how it all began.

For the last three years, David Spriggs (Norfolk), Mark Hardin (Hopewell) and I have been researching this story, and it’d take a full book to review the sum total of what we learned along the way. (And within the next few months, that book should be finished. More on that later.)

Looking back, it’s fun to see the progression and evolution of our thought processes. At first, I suspected the “Ethels” were from Aladdin (a kit home company). After all, when you’re a kit house historian, that’s your natural default. Despite lots of digging through lots of old catalogs, I couldn’t match them up.

Our first big break came when Mark Hardin discovered our Ethels out in Dupont, Washington and Ramsay, Montana, the site of two DuPont World War One-era munitions plants. The houses had been built there in the 1910s, to provide housing for the workers at the DuPont plants.

Penniman (about six miles east of Williamsburg) had been the site of DuPont’s 37th munitions plant, and it had closed down after The Great War had ended (November 1918).

Could our Ethels have come from Penniman?

Our next big break came when Norfolk historian Robert Hitchings said that there were several houses on Major Avenue (a Norfolk neighborhood known as “Riverfront”) that had been brought in by barge. Within about six weeks, Robert gave us a 1921 clipping from the Virginian Pilot, showing a barge bringing the houses down the York River. Read more about that here.

Break Number Three was also from Mark Hardin. He found an article in a 1938 Richmond newspaper, detailing the fascinating history of the “ghost city” of Penniman, Virginia. At its peak, the village boasted of 15,000 residents. It had its own bank, post office, YMCA, hospital, and schools. A grainy picture from the Richmond paper showed several Penniman houses, at Penniman. Those were the same model houses now sitting on Major Avenue. More on that here.

With that 1921 Virginian Pilot article in hand, David was able to find a local descendant of Mr. Hastings (a local stevedore who’d brought the houses into Norfolk by barge). I sent the descendant a note and she contacted me. She was able to fill in a lot of blanks, and tell us where even more of the Penniman houses were located (in Willoughby Spit).

And yet, we didn’t have any pictures of our Ethels on barges or at Penniman. We had a barge-load of circumstantial evidence that these houses came from Penniman, but we wanted more.

Digging for information on Penniman was very challenging. We searched and searched, and found bits and pieces here and there, but nothing substantive. When “The War to End All Wars” finally ended, all traces of Penniman went with it.

And then finally, after three years of research, I hit the Mother Lode.

Hagley Museum and Library (in Wilmington, DE) is a 235-acre site that is home to the original DuPont estate and gardens. According to Wiki, Hagley Museum and Library “tells the story of the people who worked for the DuPont company in the 19th Century.”

And fortunately, those folks kept good records. After a few emails and phone calls to Hagley, I learned that Hagley had many photos of Penniman. I literally jumped in the car and drove 483 miles (round trip) to look at those photos.

And let me tell you, it was worth the trip.

On October 25, I spent several hours at the Hagley Museum and Library, learning all about life in Penniman in the late 1910s. It was quite a thrill to look at the 100+ photos of a place that was now all but forgotten. It was remarkable to look into the faces of the men and women of Penniman, working assiduously to “stuff one [shell] for the kaiser,” and doing their part to win “The War to End All Wars.”

And best of all, I spotted the Ethels in their natural habitat.

As an architectural historian, I can tell you, that was a very happy memory that I won’t ever forget.

Three years of searching. Hundreds of  miles traversed. Countless hours of research. Mystery solved.

Below are a few photos that tell the story of our Ethels, and where they came from and where they landed.

Thanks so much to David Spriggs and Mark Hardin for helping solve an architectural mystery!

There is one more piece of the puzzle we’d really like to solve. We’re told by long-time Riverview residents that there is a picture of The Ethels, fresh off the boat, being rolled up Lavalette Avenue on pilings or logs. There has been a whole slew of us (David Spriggs, Milton Crum, Bill Inge and more) methodically searching the local papers for this photo, but we’ve found nothing. We’d love to find it!

If anyone has information on where we might find this photo, we’d be grateful to know.

Travel back in time and see the Ethels (in the 1940s).

To read Part I of this story, click here.

To read part II of this story, click here.

To read part III, click here.

To read more about Old Hickory (another DuPont plant with the same houses), click here.

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The Ethels have been a  mystery

The true source of these "Ethels" (as we call them) has been a puzzle for many years. Here are three in a row on Ethel Avenue in Riverview (Norfolk). The tax records give a build date of 1918, which (to my amazement) is right.These houses were built at Penniman in Spring 1918, and sometime in late 1923 or early 1924, they were floated down the York River to Lafayette River and into Riverview. According to DuPont's literature, this particular model was called, "The DuPont." Sadly, one of these old Penniman houses was torn down about 2008.

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Highland Park

There are two Ethels in Highland Park (49th Street) in Norfolk, side by side. Despite the oversized addition on the second floor, this house is in wonderfully original condition. (Photo is copyright 2009 David Spriggs.)

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Dupont Mark

Mark Hardin found The Ethel in several other DuPont towns, such as DuPont, Washington, where they have more than 100 of these houses, lined up - one after the other - like little soldiers. In fact, Mark found that there's a "Penniman Street" in Dupont, Washington. The house shown above is in Dupont, Washington. (This photo is courtesy of Mark Mckillop and may not be reproduced without written permission.)

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Penniman houses 1938

One of our big breaks was when we found this in-depth story about Penniman in the Richmond News Leader. The article was dated June 1938, and gives an amazing insight into life in Penniman.We'd love to find Dick Velz' family and find out if they have any more information on Penniman. It's a long shot, but it's a shot.

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Penniman

At its peak, there were about 15,000 people working at DuPont's 37th munitions plant in Penniman. The houses were packed in there pretty tightly. Most of the houses had "rubberoid exteriors." In other words, they were pretty primitive. The Ethels were the better houses, and had a little bit of space around them. At the back of the photo you can see the "better class of houses" and the York River. (Photo is courtesy Hagley Museum and Library.)

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house house

Close-up of those finer homes at the back of the photo. The houses in the foreground were pretty simple dwellings, and most didn't have wood exteriors, but "rubberoid" (not unlike tar paper). (Photo is courtesy Hagley Museum and Library.)

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house native

Another panoramic shows the Ethels in place within Penniman. (Photo is courtesy Hagley Museum and Library.)

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house house

The Ethels sat down by the York River for the first few months of their young lives. Five or six years after they were built, they were moved to Norfolk, Virginia. The two-story houses were "Miltons" and were moved - with the Ethels - to Riverview. There were more than 40 Penniman houses which were moved to Major Avenue and Glenroie Avenue (Riverfront area) in Norfolk. (Photo is courtesy Hagley Museum and Library.)

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house house house Penniman

Three little Ethels in a row in Penniman. Check out the board walk. The houses were probably built on brick pillars, and the planks were added around the foundation to keep out the wind and the critters. (Photo is courtesy Hagley Museum and Library.)

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house penniman

The two-story house facing the York River is what we call "The Milton" and it was also moved to Riverview - with the Ethels. There were 20 "cottages" according to contemporary newspaper articles, 18 Ethels and 2 Miltons. (Photo is courtesy Hagley Museum and Library.)

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Another big break came

Another big break came when Robert Hitchings found this article in the Virginian Pilot (date December 1921). Warren Hastings moved at least 60 of these Penniman Houses to Norfolk. A man named George Hudson *apparently* moved our Ethels to Riverview. In October 1923, George Hudson bought the lots where the Ethels now reside, and like Hastings, Hudson owned a stevedore business (barges).

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Riverview front

Several Penniman houses landed on Major Avenue and Glenroie Avenue in Norfolk. The house on the left is a vintage image of a DuPont design, known as "The Haskell." The house on the right is on Major Avenue. It apparently survived its trip down the York pretty well.

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Houses in Willougby

Thanks to Warren Hasting's granddaughter (still living in the area), we found these Haskells in Willoughby Spit. They were also moved from Penniman by Warren Hastings.

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houses in

The yellow Ethel in Highland Park looks like such a happy Ethel.

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houses david

A side-by-side comparison of the two little Ethels shows there can be no doubt as to their origins! The house on the right is from Penniman. (Photo on left is copyright 2008, David Spriggs; Photo on right is courtesy Hagley Museum and Library.)

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In November 2013, I went to the city assessors office and saw photos of our Ethels from the 1940s.

In November 2013, I visited to the city assessor's office and saw photos of our Ethels from the 1940s. The quality of these photos was really remarkable - a historians dream!

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When these photos were taken, our Ethels were less than 30 years old!

When these photos were taken, our Ethels were less than 30 years old!

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Since

There are two of these "Miltons" in Riverview, and we're now convinced that these two-story homes also came from Penniman. One is on Ethel Avenue and the other fronts on Beach Avenue.

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Photo in Penniman

We owe a tremendous debt of gratitude to the forward-thinking people of DuPont, who hired photographers to document Penniman with these oversized panoramic photos the village. These photos (now safely stored in the archives at Hagley) provide an incredible level of detail, showing life in Penniman in 1918. How fun to see our Ethels in 1918! (Courtesy Hagley Museum and Library.)

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To learn more about this fascinating topic, check out the links below.

To read Part I of this story, click here.

To read part II of this story, click here.

To read part III, click here.

Want to contact Rose, please leave a comment below!

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These Are a Few of My Favorite Things…

January 30th, 2013 Sears Homes 1 comment

Since August 2010, I’ve written almost 700 blogs. That’s a lot of blogs. Each blog has three or more photos. That’s thousands of photos.

Some of these blogs took several hours to compose, and then get bumped off the page within a week of their creation.

So I’m posting a few of my favorite blogs below. If you’ve enjoyed this site, please leave a comment below. I’d love to hear from you.

The Sears Corona has always been one of my favorite houses (1921).

The Sears Corona has always been one of my favorite houses (1921).

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Sears Corona in Gillespie, Illinois.

A perfect Sears Corona in Gillespie, Illinois.

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Last year, I wrote a blog about the San Jose. I’ve never seen one, but this was Rebecca’s find. Awesome house. Click here.

This blog was devoted to Alhambras, and had pictures of my favorite Alhambras of all time.

The Magnolia is my favorite house, and this blog has photos of all six Magnolias that are in existence today.

In this blog (also picture heavy) I provided lots of info on how to identify a Magnolia.

And this features a story from a 92-year-old man that built a Magnolia in the 1920s.

This blog was created from photos sent in by Pat, an Ohio resident. LOTS of Sears Homes in Ohio!

West Virginia is one of my favorite places in all the world, and Lewisburg is loaded with Sears Homes. Click here to see many fun photos.

And if you have about 10 hours to spare, click here to read the story of my Aunt Addie’s apparent murder. Let me warn you, her story is addictive! You can’t read just one link!!

Click here to read about her exhumation, and let me tell, that’s quite a story too!

Really awesome photos of Carlinville, IL (which has 150 Sears Homes) can be seen here.

This is one of the MOST popular blogs at this site. It’s picture-heavy tour of my old house in Colonial Place. We sold it a couple years ago, and yet this blog is a perennial favorite.

Another perennial favorite is the story of how we redid our bathroom in the old house. Came out beautiful, but what a project!

Here’s a detailed blog on one of Sears most popular homes: The Vallonia.

This was another fascinating historical research project: Penniman - Virginia’s Ghost Town. Wow, what a story that turned out to be!

Those are just a few of my favorites.  If you want to read more, look to the right of the page and you’ll see this (shown below). Click on any one of those months to navigate through the older blogs.

Call

Click on this column (to the right) and you'll find the rest of those 680 blogs!

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Thanks for reading the blog, and please leave a comment below!

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Virginia’s Very Own Ghost Town: Penniman (Part III)

March 11th, 2012 Sears Homes 4 comments

Sometimes, when you’re running down a mystery, there are wonderful and unexpected surprises.

Such a thing happened Friday morning. An email appeared in my inbox, from a woman who was the granddaughter of Warren B. Hastings. Mr. Hastings owned a stevedore company in Norfolk in the early 1900s, and he was the fellow who moved many houses from DuPont’s plant in Penniman to Norfolk, Virginia.

Saturday morning, I met with “Harriet,” and she shared old photos and old documents. It was a wonderful visit and she also answered many questions about this piece of Norfolk’s architectural history. Harriet told me that Mr. Hastings moved 40 houses from the old munitions plant to Norfolk, and that he kept most of the 40 houses, and once they were finished, he rented them out.

She also told me that there were a few in Ocean View, on Willioughby Spit. That was also new information. The old newspaper article we’d found from 1921 didn’t mention anything about Ocean View.

And she had an old ledger book, showing the rental income collected from this collection of old Penniman houses. The ledger had only names (no streets) but using old city directories, David Spriggs and I went through all the names and found precise addresses. With that list of addresses in hand, we then went looking for the houses on our city streets.

Harriet said that two of the little Penniman houses had burned down, and we later learned that two had been torn down.

For more than a year, David Spriggs, Mark Hardin and I have been searching for information on these houses that were moved out of Penniman, and in our 75-minute visit, Harriet was able to answer many, many questions and help us discover the rest of the story, and with her information, we were also able to discover, the rest of the houses!

To learn more about the amazing history of Penniman, read part I here. And then read Part II hereIf you want to read about the history of this project, click here.

In short, Penniman (near Williamsburg) got its start in 1916, when DuPont decided it’d be a dandy site for their 37th munitions plant. At its peak, there were 10,000 people living in the village, and another 10,000 to 20,000 souls living just outside its borders. As The Great War waged on, the plant was being expanded more and more, and in Fall 1917, there was news that a $10 million plant would soon be constructed at Penniman. The munitions factory was hiring so many people, that the local farmers complained that they were having a hard time finding people to work the farms.

But then something very unexpected happened: On November 11, 1918, The Great War - also known as “The War to End All Wars” came to a swift and sure end.

By 1920, the plant was closed down and the 250+ houses in the village were boarded up and moved to other places.

In 1921, the Virginian Pilot did a short story on the houses being moved by barge from Penniman to Norfolk by Warren Hastings.

In 1938, The Richmond News Leader did a feature story on this Virginia Ghost Town, but that was 74 years ago. From what we can glean, that was the last time anything was written about Penniman.

Now, we still need to figure out how those 14 little bungalows in Riverview (Norfolk) got to their location. Hastings moved 40 houses, but his ledger didn’t mention anything about houses in Riverview.

Maybe soon, we’ll know more about those houses.

To read Part I, click here.

To read Part II, click here.

To read how this whole search got started, click here.

Warren Hastings stands in front of his home at 7317 Major Avenue in Norfolk. He moved 40 of these little houses from Penniman to Norfolks Riverfront neighborhood. He lived in one, and gifted the houses to his children.

Warren Hastings stands in front of his home at 7317 Major Avenue in Norfolk. He moved 40 of these little houses from Penniman to Norfolk's "Riverfront" neighborhood. He lived in one, and gifted a handful of the houses to family members. Photo is about 1945 (approx).

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Warren Hastings (the man who moved these homes to Norfolk) lived in this house on Major Avenue. DuPont named this design, The Georgia.

Warren Hastings (the man who moved these homes to Norfolk) lived in this house on Major Avenue. DuPont named this design, "The Georgia."

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The Georgia, as it appeared in the old DuPont literature.

"The Georgia," as it appeared in the old DuPont literature.

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A short article in the Virginia Pilot talks about the houses coming to Norfolk by barge.

A short article in the Virginia Pilot talks about the houses coming to Norfolk by barge. Harriet pointed out during our talk that Warren's name has a typo. His name was "Warren B. Hastings,'" not Warren T.

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The houses, being floated in by barge, in 1921.

The houses, being floated in by barge, in 1921.

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The article from the Richmond News Leader (1938).

The article from the Richmond News Leader (1938).

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Close-up of the good part.

Close-up of the good part.

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To learn more about lone Penniman house we found in Colonial Williamsburg, click here.

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This is the only photo we have of the houses in Penniman. This appeared in the Richmond News Leader article in 1938, and it was a vintage image theyd obtained from a man named

This is the only photo we have of the houses in Penniman. This appeared in the Richmond News Leader article in 1938, and it was a vintage image they'd obtained from a man named Drewry Jones of Williamsburg. Oh, how we'd love to find the original of these photos!! (There were several of them, according to the paper.)

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In the Penniman photo (above), you can clearly see a few Haskells. This was another DuPont design and was apparently the prevailing style of house built at Penniman.

In the Penniman photo (above), you can clearly see a few "Haskells." This was another DuPont design and was apparently the prevailing style of house built at Penniman.

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DuPont had a much larger munitions factory in Hopewell, Virginia. Heres a picture of two of the many Haskells found in Hopewell. Photo is copyright 2012 Mark Hardin and may not be used or reproduced without written permission.

DuPont had a much larger munitions factory in Hopewell, Virginia. Here's a picture of two of the many Haskells found in Hopewell. Photo is copyright 2012 Mark Hardin and may not be used or reproduced without written permission.

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This all started

It all started with these 14 little bungalows in the Riverview section of Norfolk. They're fine-looking little houses and we were wondering - where did they come from? The story is that they were floated in by barge from somewhere "up river," but no one seemed to be sure where they came from. And then Mark Hardin found that our "Ethel Bungalows" (as we called them) had been built in other DuPont towns.

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Dupont Mark

Mark Hardin found our "Ethel Bungalows" in several other DuPont towns, such as DuPont Washington, where they have more than 100 of these houses, lined up - one after the other - like little soldiers. In fact, Mark found that there's a "Penniman Street" there in Dupont, Washington. The house shown above is in Dupont, Washington. (This photo is courtesy of Mark Mckillop and may not be reproduced without written permission.)

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Penniman

Here's a piece of a panoramic photo of Penniman sometime around 1917. This photo came from the Library of Congress. No date appears with the photo, but given Penniman's short time in existence, it must have been taken mighty close to 1917.

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According to information gleaned from Mr. Hastings ledger, there were two houses at this location, now occupied by Algonquin House (built 1964). In early 2007, I lived at Algonquin House with my new hubby.

According to information gleaned from Mr. Hastings ledger, two of his Penniman houses were placed here in the 7300-block (even side) of Glenroie Avenue. Apparently these two houses were torn down when the Algonquin House was built in 1964. According to Harriet, the houses were floated in on the water directly behind the Algonquin House. (In early 2007, I lived at Algonquin House with my new hubby.)

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The ledger shows the rental prices in 1953.

The ledger shows the rental prices in 1953.

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Thanks to all this new information shared by Harriet, weve now learned that there were four Penniman Houses placed on Willoughby Spit in the Ocean View area of Norfolk.

Thanks to all this new information shared by Harriet, we've now learned that there were four Penniman Houses placed on Willoughby Spit in the Ocean View area of Norfolk. This photo shows three Haskells in a row on 13th View Street. The old ledger shows FOUR houses in a row on 13th View Street. Was one moved to another spot? Or was it razed?

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And about three blocks away from 13th is another Penniman house: The Georgia. Its on Chela Avenue, also in Willoughby Spit.

And about three blocks away from 13th View Street is another Penniman house: The Georgia. It's on Chela Avenue, also in Willoughby Spit.

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And heres another Georgia that we found last month in the heart of Colonial Williamsburg.

And here's another Georgia that we found last month in the heart of Colonial Williamsburg.

To learn more about Penniman and its history, click here.

To learn more about Sears Homes, click here.

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Virginia’s Very Own Ghost Town: Penniman (Part II)

February 15th, 2012 Sears Homes 2 comments

In 1918, Penniman was a real boom town, with 10,000 living in the village and another 10,000 to 20,000 people living in the outlying areas. By 1920, it was all over, and the 250+ houses in the village were boarded up and moved to other places.

Penniman, Virginia, sat on the land now occupied by Cheatham Annex (near Williamsburg) and started - quite literally - as a Boom Town.

In all started in late 1916, when DuPont selected Penniman as the site of their 37th munitions plant, probably because of its location:  It bordered the broad York River, had good rail access, and it was safely away from population centers. When you’re manufacturing explosives, sometimes things go BOOM.  (Google “DuPont Munitions Plant Explosions” to find a dozen pre-WW1 examples.)

To learn more about Penniman, read Part I here.

Recently, David Spriggs and I drove to Williamsburg, trying to find any original Penniman houses that had been moved there.

An aside: If you’re a person who adores early 20th Century architecture, Williamsburg is bad news. Due to the incredible expansion of the college (W&M), and the massive re-creation of Colonial Williamsburg in the 1920s and 30s, most of the early 1900s housing is gone. In 1926, Standard Oil philanthropist John D. Rockefeller donated more than $50 million to restore and re-create Virginia’s colonial capitol. To make way for the reproduced village of Williamsburg, many “crummy little bungalows” were sent to their reward.

Thanks to an old article in the Richmond News Leader in June 1938, we knew that some of the houses from Penniman had been moved to Williamsburg, and in fact, we had a street name: South England.

Willaism

This is a piece of an article that appeared in the Richmond News Leader in 1938.

The house(s) on Scotland are gone, and I suspect the “temporary dormitories” are long gone, too. We didn’t find anything on North Henry Street.

When David turned his dark blue Volvo down South England Street, we weren’t expecting much. It was a dead-end street and despite a lot of driving around, we hadn’t found a single Penniman house anywhere in town.

But when we rolled down to the corner of South England and Williamsburg, I recognized a house that I’d seen before. Actually, I’d seen a picture of it before. Mark Hardin had emailed the photo a few weeks prior, asking if it was a Penniman house. Looking at the picture, I’d said, “No, I don’t think it is.”

Seeing the house in the flesh changed my mind. It was most certainly a Penniman “Georgia.”

The Geogia was a Dupont design, built for factory workers at their plants in Penniman, Old Hickory, TN and Carney Point, NJ.

The Georgia was a Dupont design, built for factory workers at their plants in Penniman, Old Hickory, TN and Carney Point, NJ.

Was this a Penniman house? At first glance, youd say, heck no, but wait...

Was this a Penniman house? At first glance, you'd say, heck no, but wait...

The Penniman houses were wee tiny. This house is massive.

The Penniman houses were wee tiny. This house is massive.

But when you look at it from the front...

But when you look at it from the front, you see some distinctive features.

And you see that the house in Williamsburg (the yellow house with deep green shutters) is a nice match to the known Penniman Georgias on Major Avenue in Norfolk.

And you see that the house in Williamsburg (the yellow house with deep green shutters) is a nice match to the known Penniman house on Major Avenue in Norfolk (shown here). Notice the long, tall windows flanking the front door? That's a very distinctive feature on the DuPont Georgia.

The Penniman houses were wee tiny. This house is massive.

And if you look at the brick foundation, you'll see where it transitions from original 1920s structure to more modern brick foundation.

put somewhere else

The footprint of original structure is evident when you look at the foundation.

Do sis

They added some newer windows and enlarged the openings a bit and they added some batten shutters, and they built a 2,500-square-foot addition on the rear, but I'd have to say, this is most definitely one of our lost houses from Penniman, Virginia.

The Geogia was a Dupont design, built for factory workers at their plants in Penniman, Old Hickory, TN and Carney Point, NJ.

When you compare the two houses from the same angle, you can see - this house on in the 400-block of S. England in Williamsburg is clearly a Penniman house!

Thanks to Mark Hardin and David Spriggs for finding these little jewels in Williamsburg!  :)  It was Mark Hardin who first found this house on S. England, via Google!

To learn more about Virginia’s own ghost town, click here.

To learn about Sears Homes, click here.

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Old Hickory, Tennessee and Norfolk, Virginia (Updated!)

January 1st, 2012 Sears Homes 3 comments

Since I moved to Norfolk in September 2006, the 16 identical bungalows on Ethel Avenue have been whispering my name, and imploring me to come close, and learn more about their unique origins. Problem was, I could never quite make out what they were saying.

For years, I pored through my vintage catalogs from Sears, Aladdin, Gordon Van Tine, Lewis Manufacturing, Sterling Homes and even Pacific Ready Cut Homes, hoping to identify them as kit homes from a mail-order company.

I never could find a design that was anything close.

Someone in town said the houses were built at the 300th anniversary fair at Jamestown (1904) and moved from that site to their resting place in Riverview (Norfolk). That didn’t ring true, because these little bungalows were more typical of the 1910s. And somewhere, we heard that there had been a DuPont factory in Penniman, Virginia (about 30 minutes from Norfolk), and that the houses might have come from the factory at Penniman.

And then I started doing research on Hopewell, Virginia and learned that it had also been the site of a DuPont munitions factory. So I drove around Hopewell, trying to find our “Ethels” (as they came to be known).

There have been many interesting discoveries along the way. To read a full history of our project, click here.

If I was doing this project on my own, it probably would have ended when I couldn’t find the houses in my mail order catalogs. But I’m not alone. Norfolk historian David Spriggs and Researcher Extraordinaire Mark Hardin have been doing most of the heavy lifting. And they’ve made some amazing discoveries.

It was Mark who found our “Ethels” in other cities (Butte, Montana and Dupont, Washington), and it was Mark who found a plethora of info on the architecture history of DuPont’s “Munition Towns.”

It was David who found an article about George P. Hudson in a newspaper article dated April 14, 1922. Hudson owned several lots where Ethels landed, and also owned a barge company here in Norfolk.

A few months ago, Mark Hardin sent me a photo of a Dupont design in Old Hickory, Tennessee (near Nashville).  I looked at it, but I wasn’t sure what to think. And then last week, David Spriggs said, “I think I’ve identified a two-story Dupont design here in Riverview.”

I thought, “Okay, I’ll look at it.”

And that’s when things took a turn for the better.

Looking at the architectural details of David’s “two-story Dupont house,” and comparing it to our Ethels, I had to say, he was right. The two houses shared several important architectural features. And then I noticed the two-story house had a long tall attic window. Where had I seen that before? In the picture that Mark sent me, of the houses in Old Hickory.

David and I had also been told that there were some houses on Major Avenue (another part of Norfolk), that had come here by barge. We drove down Major Avenue and that’s when it all started to come together. The houses on Major Avenue had a very distinctive attic window that we’d just seen on the two-story “Dupont Design” in Riverview.

Pictures are a lot better than words, so here are a few pictures (below).

I’d be grateful for any information anyone can share about Old Hickory, TN.

*David Spriggs and Mark Hardin have done most of the research on this subject. On this project, I’ve been the blog writer and photo taker!  :)

H

On the left is a vintage picture of a Dupont Design (The Haskell) that was built in Old Hickory, TN. On the right is a house in Norfolk (on Major Avenue). We're now pretty well certain that these houses came from Penniman (site of a Dupont Munitions Factory) and floated by barge to this location. According to an article in the "Richmond News Leader" (June 1938) there are 51 of these homes in Norfolk, in varying designs. Thus far, we've found fewer than 30 of the 51 houses.

Vintage photo of Old Hickory (site of a Dupont Munitions Plant) shows two of the eight housing styles found there. These are the same two housing styles found on Major Avenue in Norfolk, VA.

Vintage photo of Old Hickory (site of a Dupont Munitions Plant in Tennessee) shows two of the eight housing styles found there. These are the same two housing styles found on Major Avenue and Glenroie Avenue in Norfolk, VA.

This little Dutch Colonial

This little Dutch Colonial was one of the "Dupont Designs" found in Old Hickory, Tennessee. Note the narrow windows by the front door.

house

There are nine of these "Dutchie Dupont' designs on Major Avenue and Glenroie Avenue in Norfolk. These Norfolk houses are a perfect match to the houses in Old Hickory, TN.

Two of the many Dutchies from DuPont found in Norfolk.

One of the many "Dutchies from DuPont" found in Norfolk.

Cumberland

The Cumberland was one of 12 designs created by Dupont and found in both Norfolk and Old Hickory. There are two of these on Major Avenue (Norfolk).

And heres the real life example.

And here's one of two Cumberlands on Major Avenue. It is a perfect match to the Dupont Cumberland found in Old Hickory, TN.

The other Cumberland on Major Avenue

The other Cumberland on Major Avenue.

This is the two-story house (ensconced in the land of Ethels) in Riverview. Note the unusual attic window.

This is the two-story house (ensconced in the land of Ethels) in Norfolk. Note the tall thin attic window which is a perfect match to the Old Hickory house above. There are other architectural features which lead us to believe that this is also a "Dupont Design." This house was floated by barge to its location here in Norfolk. This is a big house to move!

Close-up of the attic window.

Close-up of the attic window found on all the two-storyy Dupont designs.

It all started with these little bungalows that weve named, The Ethels. There are 16 of these in Riverview (Ethel Avenue) and two in Highland Park (51st Street) in Norfolk.

It all started with these little bungalows that we've named, The Ethels. There are 16 of these in Riverview (Ethel Avenue) and two in Highland Park (51st Street) in Norfolk.

I spent many hours of my life, poring through old mail order catalogs, trying to identify these bungalows as kit homes.

I spent many hours of my life, poring through old mail order catalogs, trying to identify these bungalows as kit homes. And it turns out, they were built by Dupont for their employees at Penniman (Virginia). Dupont had a massive munitions plant there in Penniman, and after it was closed, the houses were shipped out to other cities, including Norfolk. That's where these "Ethels" came from.

And there are dozens of Ethels in Dupont, Washington, site of another Dupont Munitions plant.

And there are dozens of "Ethels" in Dupont, Washington, site of another Dupont Munitions plant.

Close-up of dormer

This dormer window on these "Ethels" is a pretty distinctive feature.

If you have any information about the houses in Old Hickory, please leave a comment below.

And there was an employee newsletter called, “The Projectile,” which featured a story on the building of these houses. That would also be an incredible resource. Thanks in advance for any and all help.

If you’d like to read earlier posts, start with Part I.

And then go to Part II.

Part III.

Part IV.

Part V.

Part VI.

Part VII.

Part VIII.

To learn more about Sears Homes, click here.

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